- The IOC have disqualified Jamaica's Nesta Carter from 2008 Olympic Games
- Sprinter Carter won gold in the 4x100m relay in Beijing alongside Usain Bolt
- Re-analysis gave a positive test for prohibited substance methylhexaneamine
- Jamaica have now been stripped of their medals - with Bolt and Co disqualified
- The decision means Bolt's triple-triple of Olympic gold medals is no more
Published: 14:21 BST, 25 January 2017 | Updated: 23:33 BST, 25 January 2017olympic
Usain Bolt has been stripped of one of his nine Olympic gold medals because of a doping offence committed by his team-mate Nesta Carter.
The Jamaican no longer owns the hallowed 'triple-triple' of Olympic sprint titles after being told to hand back the 100m relay gold medal won at Beijing 2008 alongside Carter.
Bolt had realised this was a possibility after it emerged last June that Carter had retrospectively failed a drugs test from the Beijing Games nine years ago.
Asafa Powell, Nesta Carter, Usain Bolt and Michael Frater (left to right) pose together after winning the 4x100m gold medal at the Beijing Olympics - but they have now been disqualified
Carter (second right, with Bolt) tested positive for methylhexaneaminet in sample re-analysis
Bolt and Carter have regularly raced together in relays - they are pictured together in 2015
USAIN BOLT'S OLYMPIC GOLDS
2008: Olympic Games, Beijing
- 4x100m NOW STRIPPED AND DISQUALIFIED
2012: Olympic Games, London
2016: Olympic Games, Rio
Amid great fanfare at the Rio Olympics just two months later, Bolt won 100m, 200m and 100m relay gold as he had in 2008 and 2012 — becoming the first man in history to win three sprint titles at three successive Olympics.
But that achievement proved fleeting with the confirmation on Wednesday from the International Olympic Committee that the banned stimulant methylhexaneamine was identified in a urine sample Carter gave in 2008.
Medical opinion varies concerning the potency of methylhexaneamine, with one prominent professor claiming it is only slightly stronger than a cup of coffee. Nevertheless, it has proven powerful enough to leave the most recognisable sportsman in the world devastated.
Last summer Bolt, 30, admitted he was rocked by Carter's doping. 'It's heartbreaking because over the years you've worked hard to accumulate gold medals and worked hard to be a champion but it's just one of those things,' he said. 'Things happen in life, so when it's confirmed or whatever, if I need to give back my gold medal I'd have to give it back.'
Powell, Carter, Bolt and Frater celebrate on the track together after their triumph in 2008
Carter (far left) stands draped in the Jamaican flag at the Bird's Nest Stadium in Beijing
WHAT IS METHYLHEXANAMINE?
Nesta Carter was found to have Methylhexanamine, a banned stimulant, in his system when the samples he gave at Beijing 2008 were retested.
Methylhexanamine has been on the banned list since 2004 and was reclassified as a specialised substance in 2011.
It is also known as 'DMAA' and can be found in sports supplements. Until 1983, it was sold as a nasal decongestant in the United States.
The US Food & Drug administration say Methylhexanamine 'narrows blood vessels and arteries, which can elevate blood pressure, and may lead to cardiovascular problems such as shortness of breath, arrhythmias, tightening in the chest, and heart attack, as well as seizures and other neurological and psychological conditions.'
The useful effects mean it helps as a body building aid and with weight loss.
Jamaica's gold medals will be re-allocated to Trinidad and Tobago, with Japan promoted to silver and Brazil bronze.
Carter ran the first leg for Jamaica and Bolt anchored them to gold inside the Bird's Nest stadium where he announced himself as a superstar.
While Bolt is faultless and a victim of his teammate's cheating, Carter's use of performance enhancing drugs casts a shadow over the legitimacy of Jamaica's sprint medal factory.
In 2013, Veronica Campbell-Brown, Asafa Powell and Sherone Simpson tested positive after inadvertent breaches — leading to suspicions as to how this tiny island became so dominant on the world stage.
A former head of Jamaica's anti-doping agency exposed negligible levels of drug testing in the country in the lead-up to London 2012.
The confirmation of Carter's positive doping tests means Bolt, whose 100m world record is 9.58sec, stands alone as the only man to have run below 9.79sec and not be tainted by a drugs ban. The other five — Tyson Gay (9.69sec), Yohan Blake (9.69sec), Asafa Powell (9.72sec) Justin Gatlin (9.74sec) and now Carter (9.78sec) — have all admitted doping violations.
Bolt is pictured at the GQ Men of the Year party in Los Angeles, California last month
Carter (left) testified by video conference at an IOC disciplinary hearing in October
AUGUST 22, 2008: Usain Bolt helps Jamaica's 4x100m relay team to gold, setting a world record time of 37.10 seconds.
Jamaica's team also consists of Michael Frater, Asafa Powell and Nesta Carter. Bolt runs the third leg and wins his third gold medal of the 2008 games, adding to 100m and 200m glory.
AUGUST 11, 2012: Jamaica defend their 4x100m gold, smashing the world record with a time of 36.84 seconds.
The team consists of Carter, Frater, Yohan Blake and Bolt. For Bolt, it means he has successfully defended all three of his gold medals in Beijing.
MAY 2016: The International Olympic Committee retest 454 frozen blood and urine samples from Beijing 2008.
JUNE 2016: It is announced Carter's A sample from Beijing has produced an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) with banned stimulant Methylhexanamine.
AUGUST 19, 2016: Bolt and Jamaica record victory in the 4x100m for the third time in a row.
This time, the Jamaica team consists of Powell, Blake, Nickel Ashmeade and Bolt.
Bolt, at his last Olympics, also defended his 100m and 200m titles, making him a 'triple-triple' Olympic gold medallist.
JANUARY 25, 2017: The IOC announce Jamaica have been disqualified from the 2008 4x100m final due to Carter's positive test for the prohibited substance methylhexanamine.
Frater, Powell, Carter and Bolt all lose their gold medals from that race.
At London 2012, Carter was in the 4x100m team again anchored by Bolt which won gold in a world-record time of 36.84sec, although that medal is not thought to be under threat.
Although Bolt has stated that he will willingly hand his medal back, there remains the possibility the other men in the Jamaican 4x100m team from 2008 — Powell and Michael Frater — could appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport and they have 21 days in which to do this.
When American Marion Jones was stripped of her two relay medals from the Sydney Games for doping offences, her teammates kept theirs after a protracted legal battle.
However, all members of the victorious American 4x400m relay squad at the 2000 Sydney Olympics were subsequently stripped of their medals after Antonio Pettigrew admitted a doping offence.
This disappointment could provide an added layer of motivation for Bolt as he begins his final season in the sport, which will culminate at the World Championships in London this summer.
THE IOC'S DECISION
I. The Athlete, Nesta CARTER:
i. is found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to the IOC Anti-Doping Rules applicable to the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in 2008,
ii. is disqualified from the men's 4x100m relay event in which he participated upon the occasion of the Olympic Games Beijing 2008,
iii. has the medal, the medallist pin and the diploma obtained in the men's 4x100m relay event withdrawn and is ordered to return same.
II. The Jamaican team is disqualified from the men's 4x100m relay event. The corresponding medals, medallist pins and diplomas are withdrawn and shall be returned.
III. The IAAF is requested to modify the results of the above-mentioned event accordingly and to consider any further action within its own olympic gold medal 2008 competence.
IV. The Jamaica Olympic Association shall ensure full implementation of this decision.
V. The Jamaica Olympic Association shall notably secure the return to the IOC, as soon as possible, of the medals, the medallist pins and the diplomas awarded in connection with the men's 4x100m relay event to the Athlete and his teammates.
VI. This decision enters into force immediately.
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